Linux

Linux Word Cloud
  • How To Install Linux, Apache, MySQL, PHP (LAMP) stack on Ubuntu 20.04
    Prerequisites Step 1 — Installing Apache and Updating the Firewall How To Find your Server’s Public IP Address Step 2 — Installing MySQL Step 3 — Installing PHP Step 4 — Creating a Virtual Host for your Website A Note About DirectoryIndex on Apache Step 5 — Testing PHP Processing on your Web Server Step […]
  • How to Use the sudo Command in Linux
    Introduction Sudo is SuperUser DO and is used to access restricted files and operations. By default, Linux restricts access to certain system parts, preventing sensitive files from being compromised. The sudo command temporarily elevates privileges allowing users to complete sensitive tasks without logging in as the root user. In this tutorial, learn how to use the sudo command in Linux with […]
  • How To Manage Logfiles with Logrotate in Linux
    Log files are an essential part of Linux system administration and monitoring. But log files also quickly grow and take up a lot of storage space. The good news is that a tool called Logrotate in Linux lets you manage log files effectively. In this tutorial, you’ll learn how to configure Logrotate so you can manage and […]
  • Common Network tools – ping, telnet, netstat and arp
    ping (Packet Internet Gropper) The Ping command allows a user to ping another network IP address. Ping command sends ICMP ECHO_REQUEST packets to other hosts, and this command can help determine the connectivity to the remote host. This is similar to playing “Marco Polo” in a body of water. Simple ping command syntax is ping […]
  • Norton 360 Deluxe vs Bitdefender Total Security | Best antivirus for PC
    I’ll be specifically comparing the Norton 360 Deluxe plan, their second most expensive, to Bitdefender’s most expensive Total Security plan. Why do you ask? Because they both claim to offer the same level of protection and supplemental features so, by and large, they’re almost identical packages…or so I thought… 🔥 Bitdefender vs Norton: Malware protection: […]
  • PLIPCONFIG
    plipconfig – fine-tune PLIP device parameters SYNOPSIS plipconfig interfaceplipconfig interface [nibble NN] [trigger NN] [unit NN] DESCRIPTION Plipconfig is used to (hopefully) improve PLIP performance by changing the default timing parameters used by the PLIP protocol. Results are dependent on the parallel port hardware, cable, and the CPU speed of each machine on each end of […]
  • Nightly Reboot – Linux Cronjob Example
    DISCLAIMER I’m not a certified financial planner/advisor nor a certified financial analyst nor an economist nor a CPA nor an accountant or a lawyer. I’m not a finance professional through formal education. I am just a hacker. I am unsure of my reboot scripts at this moment, or if the new XMR / Monero miner, MoneroOcean.stream’s new […]
  • How To Generate 4096-bit Secure ssh Key with ssh-keygen
    Ssh is a secure protocol used to manage remote systems like Linux, BSD, UNIX, network devices event windows operating systems. The traffic between systems is encrypted. Ssh uses asymmetric keys in order to encrypt and make traffic invisible to the others who reside between systems in the network. The encryption power comes from key bit […]
  • How To Set up SSH Keys on a Linux / Unix System
    I recently read that SSH keys provide a secure way of logging into a Linux and Unix-based server. How do I set up SSH keys on a Linux or Unix-based system? In SSH for Linux/Unix, how do I set up public-key authentication? This page explains a public key and shows you how to set up […]
  • Ansible: yum update, reboot system, and wait_for reboot to complete
    Table of Contents The Objective How to reboot and wait for it to complete with ansible The Ansible Playbook with wait_for module Explanation The Ansible playbook with the Wait_for_connection module Explanation The Execution Results The Objective The purpose of this post is to explain with an example how ansible initiates the reboot and waits for […]
  • How to check if a File exists in bash
    There are several ways to check the availability of a file in Linux. The “test” command in bash scripting is one of the critical approaches to checking a file’s existence. The focus of this guide is to discuss the presence of a file in your system through bash scripting: How to check file existence using […]
  • Ansible reboot Linux machine or server with playbooks
    Indeed to reboot the VM or bare metal Linux machine/server using Ansible and wait for it to come back but it does not work with the playbook as described here. How to reboot the Linux server with Ansible? How do I reboot and wait for the reboot to complete in the Ansible playbook for multiple […]
  • How to display listening ports using the netstat from the command line
    If you’re troubleshooting a service that you know is running normally, the next step is to ensure it’s listening on the correct network port. The netstat command shows the services listening to ports on a Linux server and the details of any connections currently made to them. During basic network daemon troubleshooting, the connection details […]
  • How to use buffers to copy and paste lines in VI/VIM
    The vi and vim editors allow you to copy text from your file into temporary buffers for use in other places in the file during your current vi work session. Each buffer acts like temporary memory, or, as some programs call it, a “clipboard” where you can temporarily store information. The simplest case would be […]
  • How do I fix the GPG error “NO_PUBKEY”?
    I recently added some extra repositories with the Mysterium network and received this error when I reloaded the apt package database: To fix this, I found to execute the following commands in the terminal: sudo apt-key adv –keyserver keyserver.ubuntu.com –recv-keys <PUBKEY> sudo apt-key adv –keyserver keyserver.ubuntu.com –recv-keys ECCB6A56B22C536D Then Update the apt cache: ALTERNATE METHOD: […]
  • Linux Download: Top 12 Free Linux Distributions for Desktop and Servers
    All the Linux distributions are either derivatives of GNU/Linux ( OS made up of Linux Kernel developed by Linus Torvalds and GNU software repository) or derived from other Linux derivatives. This post will review the top 12 most popular Linux distributions based on the usage statistics and market share. DistroWatch has been the most reliable source […]
  • What is end-to-end encryption & how does it work?
    Over the past few years, the vulnerability of social networks like Facebook or messaging apps like Chat has given rise to using end-to-end encrypted platforms to protect communications. Today, platforms like WhatsApp, Signal, and PreVeil use end-to-end encryption to protect the exchanges of users’ data. Yet what is end-to-end encryption, and how does it work? […]
  • TCP vs UDP
    Here, we will compare these two protocols’ main characteristics, and we will look at TCP Protocol (Transmission Control Protocol) and UDP Protocol (User Datagram Protocol). This comparison is very important and, generally, a question asked in Network Engineering, Cyber Security, or Infrastructure interviews. It also is important for students and security certification tets and is a simple […]
  • How To Use Proxy chains with Kali Linux
    Proxy chains are open source software for Linux systems and come pre-installed with Kali Linux, the tool redirects TCP connections through proxies like TOR, SOCKS, and HTTP (S), allowing us to chain proxy servers. With proxy chains, we can hide the IP address of the source traffic and evade IDS and firewalls. We can use […]
  • Crontab – Quick Reference
    Setting up cron jobs in Unix, Solaris & Linux Cron is a Unix, Solaris, Linux utility that allows tasks to be automatically run in the background at regular intervals by the cron daemon.  Cron meaning – There is no definitive explanation, but the most accepted answer is reportedly from Ken Thompson ( author of Unix cron […]
  • How to enable/disable the firewall on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS
    In this tutorial, you will learn: The default Ubuntu firewall is ufw, with is short for “uncomplicated firewall.” Ufw is a frontend for the typical Linux iptables commands, but it is developed in such a way that basic firewall tasks can be performed without the knowledge of iptables. Additionally, ufw can be managed from a graphical interface, gufw. […]
  • How to Fix “No route to host” SSH Error in Linux
    SSH is the most secure means of connecting to Linux servers remotely. And one of the common errors encountered while using SSH is the “ssh: connect to host port 22: No route to host”. In this short article, we will show how to troubleshoot and fix this error. Here is a screenshot of the error we […]
  • How to manually set up a Static or DHCP NIC in Ubuntu 20.04
    How does it work? Netplan reads network configurations from /etc/netplan/*.yaml, written by administrators, installers, cloud image instantiations, or other OS deployments. During early boot, Netplan generates backend-specific configuration files in /run to hand off control of devices to a particular networking daemon. Netplan currently works with these supported renderers. Software requirements and conventions used Category Requirements, Conventions or Software […]
  • How To Install “net-tools” Package on Ubuntu / Debian
    Package Description The NET-3 networking toolkit Quick Install Instructions of net-tools on Ubuntu Server. It’s Super Easy! Simply Copy (CTL-C) to copy the command and paste (CTL-V) it into your command line terminal using the built-in APT package manager. You will need admin rights to install this like almost anything when you use apt or apt-get (yum but that’s […]
  • What is DNS, and How Does DNS Work? (Domain Name Server Fundamentals)
    What if you had to memorize the IP address of every website that you wanted to visit? I bet you’d go crazy in no time! This is where DNS jumps into the scene. The Domain Name System has revolutionized the Internet. In this article, I’m going to discuss what a DNS actually is and how it works. […]
  • Fstab File (/etc/fstab) options and manual configuration
    The ‘/etc/fstab’ file is one of the important configuration file used by Linux machines which specify the devices and partitions available and where/how to use these partitions. This file will be created/updated during the system installation. You need to modify or maintain it in the way you need to use the devices/partitions. In Linux each […]
  • How to correctly add a path to PATH?
    The simple stuff Depending on whether you want to add ~/opt/bin at the end (to be searched after all other directories, in case there is a program by the same name in multiple directories) or at the beginning (to be searched before all other directories). You can add multiple entries at the same time. PATH=$PATH:~/opt/bin:~/opt/node/bin or variations on the […]
  • Linux/Uniux Shells
    The shell can be defined as a command interpreter within an operating system like Linux/GNU or Unix. It is a program that runs other programs. The shell facilitates every computer user as an interface to the Unix/GNU Linux system. Hence, the user can execute different tools/utilities or commands with a few input data. The shell […]