Technician plugging patch cable in a rack mounted server

  • What is Data Loss Prevention (DLP)?
    Data loss prevention (DLP) is a set of tools and processes used to ensure that sensitive data is not lost, misused, or unauthorized access. DLP software classifies regulated, confidential, and business-critical data. It identifies violations of policies defined by organizations or within a predefined policy pack, typically driven by regulatory compliance such as HIPAA, PCI-DSS, […]
  • What is URL filtering?
    URL filtering enables companies to block individual web pages and files to restrict what content their employees can access over company networks. URL filtering restricts what web content users can access. It does this by blocking specific URLs from loading. Companies implement URL filtering to help prevent employees from using company resources — devices, network bandwidth, […]
  • What is DNS Filtering?
    DNS filtering defined DNS filtering (or DNS block) describes a cybersecurity measure used to stop internet users from accessing unapproved websites on a server. Organizations use DNS blocking to secure their environment against phishing attacks and other cyber threats. Through DNS filtering services, businesses assign control over what users can access, limit access to websites potentially posing malware […]
  • “LAN Parties” Before Laptops and WiFi
    Back in the day, people would gather to play networked games and “Geek Out.” This might also resemble some offices in the early days. It reminds me of “the old days.” Plenty of soda for caffeine, pizza, or a stack of double cheeseburgers. Command and Conquer, Diablo, and more. Comment below if you have ever […]
  • What is a secure web gateway (SWG)?
    A secure web gateway (SWG) blocks or filters out harmful content and prevents data leakage. All employee Internet traffic passes through the SWG. What is a secure web gateway (SWG)? A secure web gateway (SWG) is a cyber security product that protects company data and enforces security policies. SWGs operate between company employees and the […]
  • DNS amplification attack
    DNS amplification is a DDoS attack that leverages DNS resolvers to overwhelm a victim with traffic. What is a DNS amplification attack? This DDoS attack is a reflection-based volumetric distributed denial-of-service (DDoS) attack in which an attacker leverages the functionality of open DNS resolvers to overwhelm a target server or network with an amplified amount of traffic, rendering the […]
  • What is time-to-live (TTL)? | TTL definition
    What is time-to-live (TTL) in networking? Time to live (TTL) refers to the amount of time or “hops” that a packet is set to exist inside a network before being discarded by a router. TTL is also used in other contexts, including CDN caching and DNS caching. How does TTL work? When a packet of information is […]
  • What is the Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP)?
    What is the Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP)? The Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) is a network layer protocol used by network devices to diagnose network communication issues. ICMP is used primarily to determine whether or not data is reaching its intended destination promptly. Commonly, the ICMP protocol is used on network devices, such as routers. ICMP is crucial for […]
  • What is DNS? | How DNS works
    DNS lets users connect to websites using domain names instead of IP addresses. Learn how DNS works. What is DNS? The Domain Name System (DNS) is the phonebook of the Internet. Humans access information online through domain names like or Web browsers interact through Internet Protocol (IP) addresses. DNS translates domain names to IP addresses so browsers can […]
  • What is UDP?
    A transport layer communication protocol, UDP is a very common protocol for voice and video traffic. What is the User Datagram Protocol (UDP/IP)? The User Datagram Protocol, or UDP, is a communication protocol used across the Internet for especially time-sensitive transmissions such as video playback or DNS lookups. It speeds up communications by not formally establishing a connection before […]
  • SYN flood attack
    An SYN flood exploits a TCP/IP handshake vulnerability in an attempt to disrupt a web service. What is an SYN flood attack? An SYN flood (half-open attack) is a denial-of-service (DDoS) attack aiming to make a server unavailable to legitimate traffic by consuming all available server resources. By repeatedly sending initial connection request (SYN) packets, […]
  • What are IP & TCP?
    The Internet Protocol (IP) is the address system of the Internet and has the core function of delivering packets of information from a source device to a target device. IP is the primary way in which network connections are made, and it establishes the basis of the Internet. IP does not handle packet ordering or error checking. Such functionality […]
  • Telecommunications
    Telecommunication transmits information through various types of technologies over the wire, radio, optical, or other electromagnetic systems. It originates in the desire of humans for communication over a distance greater than that feasible with the human voice but with a similar scale of expediency; thus, slow systems (such as postal mail) are excluded from the field. The transmission media in telecommunication have evolved through numerous […]
  • Difference between Tcpdump vs. Wireshark
    Wireshark Wireshark is a popular network sniffing tool that provides GUI to decode many protocols and filters. Wireshark is a network traffic monitoring tool that runs on a network interface. It is now the most commonly used network management application. Device operators, network engineers, network security experts, and black hat hackers use Wireshark. Tcpdump Tcpdump […]
  • Wireshark – Basic Explanation of “Eavesdropping”
    Functionality Wireshark is very similar to tcpdump, but has a graphical front-end and integrated sorting and filtering options. Wireshark lets the user put network interface controllers into promiscuous mode (if supported by the network interface controller), so they can see all the traffic visible on that interface, including unicast traffic not sent to that network interface controller’s MAC address. However, when capturing with a packet analyzer in […]
  • DNS Explained
    You don’t remember individual mobile numbers. Instead, you go to your contacts app and call it by their names. The contacts app allows people to input everyday words without having to keep track of the individual mole number. This is the exact same thing DNS does for the internet. Domain Name System Computers address each […]
  • Yanluowang Ransomware Operators hacked Cisco to Steal Internal Data
    Recent reports indicate that Cisco’s corporate network was infected with ransomware from the Yanluowang group in late May.  Under the threat of leaking stolen files to the online world, the threat actor attempted to intimidate the victims into making a financial sacrifice: ransom. An employee’s Box folder linked to a compromised account was only accessible […]
  • OSI Reference Model
    7 – Application: Interface to end user. Interaction directly with the software applications. 6 – Presentation: Formats Data to be “presented” between application-layer entities. 5 – Session: Manages connections between local and remote applications. 4 – Transport: Ensures integrity of the data transmission. 3 – Network: Determines how data gets from one host to another. […]
  • Layer 2 vs. Layer 3 Switch: Which One Do You Need?
    Generally, a Layer 2 switch is one of the essential equipment used to connect all network and client devices. But for now, layer 3 switch is thriving in data centers, complicated enterprise networks, and commercial applications with the growing diversity of network applications and converged network implementations. The question arises: layer 2 vs. layer 3 switch; […]
  • Twisted Pair Cables – Everything You Need to Know
    Twisted pair copper cabling is the most ubiquitous for Ethernet network and telephone installations. But how much do you know about twisted pair cable? What makes it different from other cables, and how many types of twisted cables are there? Here in this article, you can find all the answers you are looking for. Please keep […]
  • OSI Layers & Related Attacks
  • Common Network tools – ping, telnet, netstat and arp
    ping (Packet Internet Gropper) The Ping command allows a user to ping another network IP address. Ping command sends ICMP ECHO_REQUEST packets to other hosts, and this command can help determine the connectivity to the remote host. This is similar to playing “Marco Polo” in a body of water. Simple ping command syntax is ping […]
  • Norton 360 Deluxe vs Bitdefender Total Security | Best antivirus for PC
    I’ll compare the Norton 360 Deluxe plan, their second most expensive, to Bitdefender’s most expensive Total Security plan. Why do you ask? Because they both claim to offer the same level of protection and supplemental features, by and large, they’re almost identical packages…or so I thought… 🔥 Bitdefender vs. Norton: Malware protection: 🔥 Now, starting […]
  • What is IPv6, and why is adoption taking so long?
    IPv6 has been being developed since 1998 to address the dwindling supply of IPv4 addresses available, despite its efficiency and security redesigns, enterprise acceptance and implementation is slow. For the most part, the dire warnings about running out of internet addresses have ceased because, slowly but surely, migration from the world of Internet Protocol Version […]
  • What is Data in Motion?
    What is data in motion? Data in motion, also referred to as data in transit or in flight, is a process in which digital information is transported between locations within or between computer systems. The term can also describe data within a computer’s RAM ready to be read, accessed, updated, or processed. Data in motion is one […]
  • OSI Model And 7 Layers Of OSI Model Explained
    The Open Systems Interconnection model (OSI model) is a conceptual model that characterizes and standardizes the communication functions of a telecommunication or computing system without regard to its underlying internal structure and technology. Its goal is the interoperability of diverse communication systems with standard protocols. The model partitions a communication system into abstraction layers. The original version of the […]
  • How To Use Proxy chains with Kali Linux
    Proxy chains are open source software for Linux systems and come pre-installed with Kali Linux, the tool redirects TCP connections through proxies like TOR, SOCKS, and HTTP (S), allowing us to chain proxy servers. With proxy chains, we can hide the IP address of the source traffic and evade IDS and firewalls. We can use […]
  • How to Fix “No route to host” SSH Error in Linux
    SSH is the most secure means of connecting to Linux servers remotely. And one of the common errors encountered while using SSH is the “ssh: connect to host port 22: No route to host”. In this short article, we will show how to troubleshoot and fix this error. Here is a screenshot of the error we […]
  • What is DNS, and How Does DNS Work? (Domain Name Server Fundamentals)
    What if you had to memorize the IP address of every website that you wanted to visit? I bet you’d go crazy in no time! This is where DNS jumps into the scene. The Domain Name System has revolutionized the Internet. In this article, I’m going to discuss what a DNS actually is and how it works. […]