Networking

Technician plugging patch cable in a rack mounted server

  • Lets get to work and clean up and organize!
    You are a network datacenter technician, and you are called to this remote office, which hasn’t been updated in the event maintenance records. The Trouble Ticket reads to the data center in Timbuktu, Molly, a South African town.
  • Tunneling or Port Forwarding
    Tunneling is generally done by encapsulating the private network data and protocol information within the public network transmission units so that the private network protocol information appears to the public network as data. Tunneling allows the use of the Internet, a public network, to convey data on behalf of a private network. One approach to… Read more: Tunneling or Port Forwarding
  • CDN performance
    A benefit of a CDN is its ability to deliver content quickly and efficiently. CDN performance optimizations can be broken into three categories. Explore the CDN Guide. How does a CDN improve load times? Virtually everyone on the Internet has experienced the benefits of a content delivery network (CDN). The majority of technology companies, including… Read more: CDN performance
  • What is a content delivery network (CDN)? | How do CDNs work?
    Explore how a CDN delivers fast, efficient, and secure content to websites and Internet services. What is a CDN? A content delivery network (CDN) is a geographically distributed group of servers that caches content close to end users. A CDN allows the quick transfer of assets needed for loading Internet content, including HTML pages, JavaScript… Read more: What is a content delivery network (CDN)? | How do CDNs work?
  • What is round-trip time? | RTT definition
    Round-trip time (RTT) is the millisecond duration (ms) for a network request to go from a starting point to a destination and back to the starting point. What is round-trip time? Round-trip time (RTT) is the millisecond duration (ms) for a network request to go from a starting point to a destination and back to… Read more: What is round-trip time? | RTT definition
  • How website performance affects conversion rates
    A website’s conversion rate is the percentage of users who take a desired action, and the conversion rate is tied directly to how much revenue a website generates. Page speed has a huge impact on user behavior. What is a webpage’s conversion rate? In web jargon, a user converts when they take the action that… Read more: How website performance affects conversion rates
  • Why does site speed matter? | Improve webpage speed
    If a website takes a long time to load, this can have adverse effects on the user experience, site traffic, and SEO. Websites that are optimized for performance have an advantage over slow websites. What is site speed? When a customer sits down to eat at a restaurant, slow service from the waiter often results… Read more: Why does site speed matter? | Improve webpage speed
  • What is DNS cache poisoning? | DNS spoofing
    Attackers can poison a DNS cache by tricking DNS resolvers into caching false information, resulting in the resolver sending the wrong IP address to clients, and users attempting to navigate to a website will be directed to the wrong place. What is DNS cache poisoning? DNS cache poisoning is entering false information into a DNS cache… Read more: What is DNS cache poisoning? | DNS spoofing
  • What is BGP? | BGP routing explained
    Border Gateway Protocol (BGP) is the routing protocol for the Internet. Like the post office processing mail, BGP picks the most efficient routes for delivering Internet traffic. What is BGP? Border Gateway Protocol (BGP) is the postal service of the Internet. When someone drops a letter into a mailbox, the Postal Service processes that piece… Read more: What is BGP? | BGP routing explained
  • What is an autonomous system? | What are ASNs?
    An autonomous system (AS) is a very large network or group of networks with a single routing policy. Each AS is assigned a unique ASN, which is a number that identifies the AS. What is an autonomous system? The Internet is a network of networks*, and autonomous systems are the big networks that make up the… Read more: What is an autonomous system? | What are ASNs?
  • What is a DNS CNAME record?
    The DNS CNAME record works as an alias for domain names that share a single IP address. A “canonical name” (CNAME) record points from an alias domain to a “canonical” domain. A CNAME record is used in place of an A record when a domain or subdomain is an alias of another domain. All CNAME records must point… Read more: What is a DNS CNAME record?
  • What is blackhole routing?
    Blackhole routing is a DDoS mitigation strategy that eliminates all traffic from specific sources. What is DDoS blackhole routing? DDoS blackhole routing/filtering (sometimes called blackholing), is a countermeasure to mitigate a DDoS attack in which network traffic is routed into a “black hole” and is lost. When blackhole filtering is implemented without specific restriction criteria, both legitimate… Read more: What is blackhole routing?
  • What is DNS? | How DNS works
    DNS lets users connect to websites using domain names instead of IP addresses. Learn more about how DNS works. What is DNS? The Domain Name System (DNS) is the phonebook of the Internet. Humans access information online through domain names like nytimes.com or espn.com. Web browsers interact through Internet Protocol (IP) addresses. DNS translates domain names to IP addresses so… Read more: What is DNS? | How DNS works
  • DNS server types
    Four different types of DNS servers have to work in harmony to deliver a single webpage. What are the different types of DNS servers? All DNS servers fall into four categories: Recursive resolvers, root nameservers, TLD nameservers, and authoritative nameservers. In a typical DNS lookup (when there is no caching in play), these four DNS servers work together… Read more: DNS server types
  • DNS root server
    A DNS root server is the first stop in a DNS lookup. What is a DNS root server? The administration of the Domain Name System (DNS) is structured in a hierarchy using different managed areas or “zones”, with the root zone at the very top of that hierarchy. Root servers are DNS nameservers that operate in the root… Read more: DNS root server
  • What is recursive DNS?
    In DNS lookups, which match domain names to machine-readable IP addresses, the journey up the DNS tree can either be made by DNS. What is recursive DNS? A recursive DNS lookup is where one DNS server communicates with several other DNS servers to hunt down an IP address and return it to the client. This contrasts with an iterative DNS query,… Read more: What is recursive DNS?
  • What is Anycast? | How does Anycast work?
    Anycast is a network addressing and routing method in which incoming requests can be routed to various locations. What is Anycast? Anycast is a network addressing and routing method in which incoming requests can be routed to a variety of different locations or “nodes.” In the context of a CDN, Anycast typically routes incoming traffic to… Read more: What is Anycast? | How does Anycast work?
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    What is a DNS MX record? A DNS ‘mail exchange’ (MX) record directs email to a mail server. The MX record indicates how email messages should be routed following the Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP, the standard protocol for all email). Like CNAME records, an MX record must always point to another domain. Example of an MX record: example.com… Read more: (no title)
  • What is a WAN? | WAN vs. LAN
    A wide area network (WAN) is any network that extends over a large geographic area, usually connecting multiple local area networks (LANs). What is a wide area network (WAN)? A vast area network (WAN) is an extensive computer network that connects groups of computers over large distances. Large businesses often use WANs to connect their office networks;… Read more: What is a WAN? | WAN vs. LAN
  • What is a router?
    A router is a networking device that connects two or more IP networks or subnetworks and connects various networked nodes. What is a router? A router is a device that connects two or more packet-switched networks or subnetworks. It serves two primary functions: managing traffic between these networks by forwarding data packets to their intended IP addresses, and… Read more: What is a router?
  • What is a network switch? | Switch vs. router
    A network switch forwards data packets between devices. Switches send packets directly to devices; it differs network traffic from a router. What is the difference between a switch and a router? Routers select paths for data packets to cross networks and reach their destinations. Routers do this by connecting with different networks and forwarding data… Read more: What is a network switch? | Switch vs. router
  • What is the network layer? | Network vs. Internet layer
    The network layer is layer 3 in the OSI model, responsible for connections between different networks. What is the network layer? Network-to-network connections are what make the Internet possible. The “network layer” is the part of the Internet communications process where these connections occur by sending packets of data back and forth between different networks.… Read more: What is the network layer? | Network vs. Internet layer
  • Protocols, How They Work, Use Cases
    Simple but effective “cheat sheet” on internet/networking protocols, simple examples of how they work, and use case scenarios for how a protocol would typically be used.
  • NTP amplification DDoS attack
    A volumetric DDoS attack that takes advantage of a vulnerability in the NTP protocol, flooding a server with UDP traffic. What is a NTP amplification attack? An NTP amplification attack is a reflection-based volumetric distributed denial-of-service (DDoS) attack in which an attacker exploits a Network Time Protocol (NTP) server functionality in order to overwhelm a targeted network… Read more: NTP amplification DDoS attack
  • What is a DNS flood? | DNS flood DDoS attack
    A DNS flood is a DDoS attack that aims to flood and overwhelm a target DNS server. What is a DNS Flood? Domain Name System (DNS) servers are the “phonebooks” of the Internet; they are the path through which Internet devices can look up specific web servers to access Internet content. A DNS flood is… Read more: What is a DNS flood? | DNS flood DDoS attack
  • CDN reliability and redundancy
    A CDN is designed to circumvent network congestion and protect against service interruption. CDN benefits – reliability & redundancy One of the essential characteristics of a CDN is its ability to keep website content online in the face of common network problems, including hardware failures and network congestion. By load-balancing Internet traffic, using intelligent failover,… Read more: CDN reliability and redundancy
  • What is Anycast? | How does Anycast work?
    Anycast is a network addressing and routing method in which incoming requests can be routed to various locations. What is Anycast? Anycast is a network addressing and routing method in which incoming requests can be routed to various locations or “nodes.” In the context of a CDN, Anycast typically routes incoming traffic to the nearest data center with… Read more: What is Anycast? | How does Anycast work?
  • Infrastructure: Definition, Meaning, and Examples
    What Is Infrastructure? Infrastructure is defined as the basic physical systems of a business, region, or nation and often involves the production of public goods or production processes. Examples of infrastructure include transportation systems, communication networks, sewage, water, and school systems. Investments in infrastructure tend to be costly and capital-intensive but vital to a region’s economic development… Read more: Infrastructure: Definition, Meaning, and Examples
  • What is a reverse proxy? | Proxy servers explained
    A reverse proxy protects web servers from attacks and can provide performance and reliability benefits. Learn more about forward and reverse proxies. What is a proxy server? A forward proxy, often called a proxy, proxy server, or web proxy, is a server that sits in front of a group of client machines. When those computers… Read more: What is a reverse proxy? | Proxy servers explained
  • What is rate limiting? | Rate limiting and bots
    Rate limiting blocks users, bots, or applications from overusing or abusing a web property. Rate limiting can stop certain kinds of bot attacks. What is rate limiting? Rate limiting is a strategy for limiting network traffic. It limits how often someone can repeat an action within a specific timeframe – for instance, trying to log… Read more: What is rate limiting? | Rate limiting and bots
  • What is streaming? | How video streaming works
    Streaming is a way of viewing video or listening to audio content without downloading large media files. Streaming performance can be improved and buffering time reduced if the owner of the files uses a CDN. What is streaming? The first websites were simple pages of text with maybe an image or two. Today, however, anyone… Read more: What is streaming? | How video streaming works
  • What is bot management? | How bot managers work
    Bot management involves identifying and blocking some bots from a website or application while allowing access to other bots. Bot management blocks undesired or malicious Internet bot traffic while allowing useful bots to access web properties. Bot management accomplishes this by detecting bot activity, discerning between desirable and undesirable bot behavior, and identifying the sources of the… Read more: What is bot management? | How bot managers work
  • What is the Internet of Things (IoT)?
    The Internet of Things (IoT) is the collection of Internet-connected gadgets such as cameras, refrigerators, and smart speakers. What is the Internet of Things (IoT)? Internet of Things (IoT) is a catchall phrase for all the various Internet-connected devices that are not traditional computers. This includes everything from fitness trackers and smartwatches to smart refrigerators,… Read more: What is the Internet of Things (IoT)?
  • What is SSO? | How single sign-on works
    Single sign-on (SSO) is a vital cloud security technology that reduces all user application logins to one login for greater security and convenience. What is single sign-on (SSO)? Single sign-on (SSO) is a technology that combines several different application login screens into one. With SSO, users only have to enter their login credentials (username, password,… Read more: What is SSO? | How single sign-on works
  • What Is Syntax?
    Definition of syntax and why proper syntax is important In the computer world, the syntax of a command refers to the rules in which the command must be run for a piece of software to understand it. For example, a command’s syntax may dictate case sensitivity and what kinds of options are available that make the command operate in different ways.… Read more: What Is Syntax?
  • DNS A record
    The DNS A record points to the IP address for a given domain name. What is a DNS A record? The “A” stands for “address,” and this is the most fundamental type of DNS record: it indicates the IP address of a given domain. For example, if you pull the DNS records of cloudflare.com, the… Read more: DNS A record
  • What is round-robin DNS?
    Round-robin DNS is a load-balancing technique that uses several different IP addresses for a single domain name. What is round-robin DNS? Round-robin DNS is a load-balancing technique where a type of DNS server does the balancing called an authoritative nameserver rather than using a dedicated piece of load-balancing hardware. Round-robin DNS can be used when… Read more: What is round-robin DNS?
  • What is load balancing? | How load balancers work
    Load balancing distributes traffic among multiple servers to improve a service or application’s performance and reliability. Load balancing is distributing computational workloads between two or more computers. Load balancing is often employed on the Internet to divide network traffic among several servers. This reduces the strain on each server and makes the servers more efficient,… Read more: What is load balancing? | How load balancers work
  • Bandwidth
    What Does Bandwidth Mean? Bandwidth is the bit-rate measure of the transmission capacity over a network communication system. Bandwidth is also described as the carrying capacity of a channel or the data transfer speed of that channel. However, broadly defined, bandwidth is the capacity of a network. Bandwidth exists in physical or wireless communication networks.… Read more: Bandwidth
  • DNS Security (DNSSEC) – What Is It and Why Is It Important?
    A brief description of how DNS works Understanding Domain Name System Security Extensions (DNSSEC) helps to understand the Domain Name System (DNS). The proper functioning of the Internet is critically dependent on the DNS. Every web page visited, every email sent, every picture retrieved from social media: all those interactions use the DNS to translate… Read more: DNS Security (DNSSEC) – What Is It and Why Is It Important?
  • What is the Remote Desktop Protocol (RDP)?
    What is the Remote Desktop Protocol (RDP)? The Remote Desktop Protocol (RDP) is a protocol, or technical standard, for using a desktop computer remotely. Remote desktop software can use several protocols, including RDP, Independent Computing Architecture (ICA), and virtual network computing (VNC), but RDP is the most commonly used protocol. Microsoft initially released RDP, available for… Read more: What is the Remote Desktop Protocol (RDP)?
  • Why use TLS 1.3?
    TLS 1.3 improves over previous versions of the TLS (SSL) protocol in several essential ways. What is the difference between TLS 1.3 and TLS 1.2? TLS 1.3 is the latest version of the TLS protocol. TLS, which is used by HTTPS and other network protocols for encryption, is the modern version of SSL. TLS 1.3 dropped support for older, less… Read more: Why use TLS 1.3?
  • What is a computer port? | Ports in networking
    Ports are virtual places within an operating system where network connections start and end. They help computers sort the network traffic they receive. A port is a virtual point where network connections start and end. Ports are software-based and managed by a computer’s operating system. Each port is associated with a specific process or service.… Read more: What is a computer port? | Ports in networking
  • Data Packet – Defenition
    What Does Data Packet Mean? A packet is a data unit made into a single package traveling along a network path. Data packets are used in Internet Protocol (IP) transmissions for data that navigate the Web and other networks. Data Packet Explanation A data packet has other parts besides the raw data it contains –… Read more: Data Packet – Defenition
  • What is SSL? | SSL definition
    Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) is a security protocol that provides privacy, authentication, and integrity to Internet communications. SSL eventually evolved into Transport Layer Security (TLS). SSL, or Secure Sockets Layer, is an encryption-based Internet security protocol. Netscape was first developed in 1995 to ensure privacy, authentication, and data integrity in Internet communications. SSL is the predecessor to… Read more: What is SSL? | SSL definition
  • What is HTTP?
    The Hypertext Transfer Protocol loads pages on the Internet using hyperlinks invoking http:// over port 80 typically. What is HTTP? The Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) is the foundation of the World Wide Web and is used to load webpages using hypertext links. HTTP is an application layer protocol designed to transfer information between networked devices and runs… Read more: What is HTTP?
  • What is TLS (Transport Layer Security)?
    TLS is a security protocol that provides privacy and data integrity for Internet communications. Implementing TLS is standard practice for building secure web apps. What is Transport Layer Security (TLS)? Transport Layer Security, or TLS, is a widely adopted security protocol designed to facilitate privacy and data security for communications over the Internet. A primary use case… Read more: What is TLS (Transport Layer Security)?
  • What is DNS security?
    DNS was not designed with security in mind, and many types of attacks were created to exploit vulnerabilities in the DNS system. What is DNS security? DNS security protects DNS infrastructure from cyber attacks to keep it performing quickly and reliably. An effective DNS security strategy incorporates several overlapping defenses, including establishing redundant DNS servers, applying security… Read more: What is DNS security?
  • What is HTTPS?
    Hypertext transfer protocol secure (HTTPS) is the secure version of HTTP, the primary protocol used to send data between a web browser and a website. HTTPS is encrypted to increase the security of data transfer. This is particularly important when users transmit sensitive data by logging into a bank account, email service, or health insurance provider.… Read more: What is HTTPS?
  • What is a domain name registrar?
    A domain name registrar is a business that handles the reservation of domain names and the assignment of IP addresses for those domain names. Domain names are alphanumeric aliases used to access websites. For example, The IP address would be something like 192.0.2.1 (just an example). Domain names make it easier to access websites without memorizing and entering… Read more: What is a domain name registrar?
  • What is a domain name? | Domain name vs. URL
    A domain name is a unique, easy-to-remember address used to access websites such as ‘google.com’, and ‘facebook.com’. Users can connect to websites using domain names thanks to the DNS system. A domain name is a string of text that maps to an alphanumeric IP address, used to access a website from client software. In plain English,… Read more: What is a domain name? | Domain name vs. URL
  • What is an IP address, and why does it matter?
    ‘IP’ stands for Internet Protocol, the set of rules that allows devices to communicate over the Internet. With billions of people accessing the Internet daily, unique identifiers are necessary to track who is doing what. The Internet Protocol solves this by assigning IP numbers to every Internet device. A computer’s IP address is like the physical address… Read more: What is an IP address, and why does it matter?
  • What is the Internet Protocol?
    The Internet Protocol (IP) is a set of requirements for addressing and routing data on the Internet. IP can be used with several transport protocols, including TCP and UDP. The Internet Protocol (IP) is a protocol, or set of rules, for routing and addressing packets of data so that they can travel across networks and… Read more: What is the Internet Protocol?
  • What is a LAN (local area network)?
    A LAN, or local area network, is a group of connected computing devices within a localized area that usually share a centralized Internet connection. A local area network (LAN) is contained within a small geographic area, usually within the same building. Home WiFi networks and small business networks are typical examples of LANs. LANs can… Read more: What is a LAN (local area network)?
  • What is a protocol? | Network protocol definition
    In networking, a protocol is a standardized set of rules for formatting and processing data. Protocols enable computers to communicate with one another. In networking, a protocol is a set of rules for formatting and processing data. Network protocols are like a common language for computers. The computers within a network may use vastly different… Read more: What is a protocol? | Network protocol definition
  • What is a VPN?
    A virtual private network (VPN) lets a user remotely access a private network for privacy and security. A virtual private network (VPN) is an Internet security service that allows users to access the Internet as though they were connected to a private network. This encrypts Internet communications as well as providing a substantial degree of… Read more: What is a VPN?
  • What is my IP address?
    IP addresses are unique identifiers that determine who is who on the Internet. IP addresses can be formatted differently depending on whether they use IPv4 or IPv6 protocol. What is an IP address, and why does it matter? ‘IP’ stands for Internet Protocol, the set of rules that allows devices to communicate over the Internet. With billions… Read more: What is my IP address?
  • What is an Internet exchange point? | How do IXPs work?
    An Internet exchange point (IXP) is a physical location through which Internet infrastructure companies such as Internet Service Providers (ISPs) and CDNs use to connect. An Internet exchange point (IXP) is a physical location through which Internet infrastructure companies such as Internet Service Providers (ISPs) and CDNs connect. These locations exist on the “edge” of different networks… Read more: What is an Internet exchange point? | How do IXPs work?
  • What is latency? | How to fix latency
    Latency measured is the time it takes for data to travel. Lowering latency is an essential part of building a good user experience. Latency is the time it takes for data to pass from one point on a network to another. Suppose Server A in New York sends a data packet to Server B in London. Server… Read more: What is latency? | How to fix latency
  • What is Website Caching?
    Caches store copies of files to deliver websites robustly to deliver at fast speeds where they are needed for various demands. Caching stores copies of files or data in a cache, or temporary storage location, to be accessed more quickly. Technically, a cache is any temporary storage location for copies of files or data, but… Read more: What is Website Caching?
  • Useful ‘host’ Command Examples for Querying DNS Lookups
    Host command is a minimal and easy-to-use the command line interface, or CLI utility for performing DNS lookups which translate domain names to IP addresses and vice versa. It can also be used to list and verify various types of DNS records such as NS and MX, test and validate ISP DNS server and Internet… Read more: Useful ‘host’ Command Examples for Querying DNS Lookups
  • 8 Linux Nslookup Commands to Troubleshoot DNS (Domain Name Server)
    nslookup is a command-line administrative tool for testing and troubleshooting DNS servers (Domain Name Server). It is used to query specific DNS resource records (RR) as well. Most operating systems come with a built-in nslookup feature. This article demonstrates the widely used nslookup command in detail. Nslookup can be run in two modes: Interactive and… Read more: 8 Linux Nslookup Commands to Troubleshoot DNS (Domain Name Server)
  • What Is LoRa?
    LoRa (short for long range) is a spread spectrum modulation technique derived from chirp spread spectrum (CSS) technology. LoRa is a long range, low power wireless platform that has become the de facto wireless platform of Internet of Things (IoT). LoRa devices and networks such as the LoRaWAN® enable smart IoT applications that solve some… Read more: What Is LoRa?
  • Zero Trust security | What is a Zero Trust network?
    Zero Trust is a security model based on maintaining strict access controls and not trusting anyone by default, even those already inside the network perimeter. What is Zero Trust security? Zero Trust security is an IT security model that requires strict identity verification for every person and device trying to access resources on a private… Read more: Zero Trust security | What is a Zero Trust network?
  • What Is Network Address Translation (NAT)? Meaning, Working, and Examples
    NAT is used to map multiple local private addresses to a single IP address. What Is Network Address Translation (NAT)? Network address translation (NAT) is the process of mapping private IP addresses to a single public IP address while information is being transferred via a router or NAT firewall. NAT is used by organizations with… Read more: What Is Network Address Translation (NAT)? Meaning, Working, and Examples
  • The DNS System Hierarchy
    Domain Name System (DNS) Hierarchy. Caches, Resolvers, Root, TLD, and Authoritative Name Servers explained for DNS requests.
  • What is Data Loss Prevention (DLP)?
    Data loss prevention (DLP) is a set of tools and processes used to ensure that sensitive data is not lost, misused, or unauthorized access. DLP software classifies regulated, confidential, and business-critical data. It identifies violations of policies defined by organizations or within a predefined policy pack, typically driven by regulatory compliance such as HIPAA, PCI-DSS,… Read more: What is Data Loss Prevention (DLP)?
  • What is URL filtering?
    URL filtering enables companies to block individual web pages and files to restrict what content their employees can access over company networks. URL filtering restricts what web content users can access. It does this by blocking specific URLs from loading. Corporations implement URL filtering to prevent the use of company resources, devices, network bandwidth, etc. ,… Read more: What is URL filtering?
  • What is DNS Filtering?
    DNS filtering defined DNS filtering (or DNS block) describes a cybersecurity measure used to stop internet users from accessing unapproved websites on a server. Organizations use DNS blocking to secure their environment against phishing attacks and other cyber threats. Through DNS filtering services, businesses assign control over what users can access, limit access to websites potentially posing malware… Read more: What is DNS Filtering?
  • “LAN Parties” Before Laptops and WiFi
    Back in the day, people would gather to play networked games and “Geek Out.” This might also resemble some offices in the early days. It reminds me of “the old days.” Plenty of soda for caffeine, pizza, or a stack of double cheeseburgers. Command and Conquer, Diablo, and more. Comment below if you have ever… Read more: “LAN Parties” Before Laptops and WiFi
  • What is a secure web gateway (SWG)?
    A secure web gateway (SWG) blocks or filters out harmful content and prevents data leakage. All employee Internet traffic passes through the SWG. What is a secure web gateway (SWG)? A secure web gateway (SWG) is a cyber security product that protects company data and enforces security policies. SWGs operate between company employees and the… Read more: What is a secure web gateway (SWG)?
  • DNS amplification attack
    DNS amplification is a DDoS attack that leverages DNS resolvers to overwhelm a victim with traffic. What is a DNS amplification attack? This DDoS attack is a reflection-based volumetric distributed denial-of-service (DDoS) attack in which an attacker leverages the functionality of open DNS resolvers to overwhelm a target server or network with an amplified amount of traffic, rendering the… Read more: DNS amplification attack
  • What is time-to-live (TTL)? | TTL definition
    What is time-to-live (TTL) in networking? Time to live (TTL) refers to the amount of time or “hops” that a packet is set to exist inside a network before being discarded by a router. TTL is also used in other contexts, including CDN caching and DNS caching. How does TTL work? When a packet of information is… Read more: What is time-to-live (TTL)? | TTL definition
  • What is the Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP)?
    What is the Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP)? The Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) is a network layer protocol used by network devices to diagnose network communication issues. ICMP is used primarily to determine whether or not data is reaching its intended destination promptly. Commonly, the ICMP protocol is used on network devices, such as routers. ICMP is crucial for… Read more: What is the Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP)?
  • What is DNS? | How DNS works
    DNS lets users connect to websites using domain names instead of IP addresses. Learn how DNS works. What is DNS? The Domain Name System (DNS) is the phonebook of the Internet. Humans access information online through domain names like nytimes.com or espn.com. Web browsers interact through Internet Protocol (IP) addresses. DNS translates domain names to IP addresses so browsers can… Read more: What is DNS? | How DNS works
  • What is UDP?
    A transport layer communication protocol, UDP is a very common protocol for voice and video traffic. What is the User Datagram Protocol (UDP/IP)? The User Datagram Protocol, or UDP, is a communication protocol used across the Internet for especially time-sensitive transmissions such as video playback or DNS lookups. It speeds up communications by not formally establishing a connection before… Read more: What is UDP?
  • SYN flood attack
    An SYN flood exploits a TCP/IP handshake vulnerability in an attempt to disrupt a web service. What is an SYN flood attack? An SYN flood (half-open attack) is a denial-of-service (DDoS) attack aiming to make a server unavailable to legitimate traffic by consuming all available server resources. By repeatedly sending initial connection request (SYN) packets,… Read more: SYN flood attack
  • What are IP & TCP?
    The Internet Protocol (IP) is the address system of the Internet and has the core function of delivering packets of information from a source device to a target device. IP is the primary way in which network connections are made, and it establishes the basis of the Internet. IP does not handle packet ordering or error checking. Such functionality… Read more: What are IP & TCP?
  • Telecommunications
    Telecommunication transmits information through various types of technologies over the wire, radio, optical, or other electromagnetic systems. It originates in the desire of humans for communication over a distance greater than that feasible with the human voice but with a similar scale of expediency; thus, slow systems (such as postal mail) are excluded from the field. The transmission media in telecommunication have evolved through numerous… Read more: Telecommunications
  • Difference between Tcpdump vs. Wireshark
    Wireshark Wireshark is a popular network sniffing tool that provides GUI to decode many protocols and filters. Wireshark is a network traffic monitoring tool that runs on a network interface. It is now the most commonly used network management application. Device operators, network engineers, network security experts, and black hat hackers use Wireshark. Tcpdump Tcpdump… Read more: Difference between Tcpdump vs. Wireshark
  • Wireshark – Basic Explanation of “Eavesdropping”
    Functionality Wireshark is very similar to tcpdump, but has a graphical front-end and integrated sorting and filtering options. Wireshark lets the user put network interface controllers into promiscuous mode (if supported by the network interface controller), so they can see all the traffic visible on that interface, including unicast traffic not sent to that network interface controller’s MAC address. However, when capturing with a packet analyzer in… Read more: Wireshark – Basic Explanation of “Eavesdropping”
  • What is a DNS A record
    The DNS A record points to the IP address for a given domain name. What is a DNS A record? The “A” stands for “address” and this is the most fundamental type of DNS record: it indicates the IP address of a given domain. For example, if you pull the DNS records of cloudflare.com, the A record currently returns an… Read more: What is a DNS A record
  • What is a DNS AAAA record?
    The DNS AAAA record matches a domain name with an IPv6 address — similar to A records, which do the same for IPv4 addresses. What is a DNS AAAA record? DNS AAAA records match a domain name to an IPv6 address. DNS AAAA records are exactly like DNS A records, except that they store a domain‘s IPv6… Read more: What is a DNS AAAA record?
  • DNS Explained
    You don’t remember individual mobile numbers. Instead, you go to your contacts app and call it by their names. The contacts app allows people to input everyday words without having to keep track of the individual mole number. This is the exact same thing DNS does for the internet. Domain Name System Computers address each… Read more: DNS Explained
  • What is the Internet of Things?
    Does your house have a smart thermostat? Or do you wear a fitness tracker to help you stay physically active? If you do, you are part of the Internet of Things, or IoT. It’s become embedded in our lives, as well as in the way organizations operate. IoT uses a variety of technologies to connect… Read more: What is the Internet of Things?
  • Yanluowang Ransomware Operators hacked Cisco to Steal Internal Data
    Recent reports indicate that Cisco’s corporate network was infected with ransomware from the Yanluowang group in late May.  Under the threat of leaking stolen files to the online world, the threat actor attempted to intimidate the victims into making a financial sacrifice: ransom. An employee’s Box folder linked to a compromised account was only accessible… Read more: Yanluowang Ransomware Operators hacked Cisco to Steal Internal Data
  • OSI Reference Model
    7 – Application: Interface to end user. Interaction directly with the software applications. 6 – Presentation: Formats Data to be “presented” between application-layer entities. 5 – Session: Manages connections between local and remote applications. 4 – Transport: Ensures integrity of the data transmission. 3 – Network: Determines how data gets from one host to another.… Read more: OSI Reference Model
  • Layer 2 vs. Layer 3 Switch: Which One Do You Need?
    Generally, a Layer 2 switch is one of the essential equipment used to connect all network and client devices. But for now, layer 3 switch is thriving in data centers, complicated enterprise networks, and commercial applications with the growing diversity of network applications and converged network implementations. The question arises: layer 2 vs. layer 3 switch;… Read more: Layer 2 vs. Layer 3 Switch: Which One Do You Need?
  • Twisted Pair Cables – Everything You Need to Know
    Twisted pair copper cabling is the most ubiquitous for Ethernet network and telephone installations. But how much do you know about twisted pair cable? What makes it different from other cables, and how many types of twisted cables are there? Here in this article, you can find all the answers you are looking for. Please keep… Read more: Twisted Pair Cables – Everything You Need to Know
  • OSI Layers & Related Attacks
  • Common Network tools – ping, telnet, netstat and arp
    ping (Packet Internet Gropper) The Ping command allows a user to ping another network IP address. Ping command sends ICMP ECHO_REQUEST packets to other hosts, and this command can help determine the connectivity to the remote host. This is similar to playing “Marco Polo” in a body of water. Simple ping command syntax is ping… Read more: Common Network tools – ping, telnet, netstat and arp
  • Norton 360 Deluxe vs Bitdefender Total Security | Best antivirus for PC
    I’ll compare the Norton 360 Deluxe plan, their second most expensive, to Bitdefender’s most expensive Total Security plan. Why do you ask? Because they both claim to offer the same level of protection and supplemental features, by and large, they’re almost identical packages…or so I thought… ? Bitdefender vs. Norton: Malware protection: ? Now, starting… Read more: Norton 360 Deluxe vs Bitdefender Total Security | Best antivirus for PC
  • What are Denial of Service (DoS) attacks? DoS attacks explained
    A Denial of Service (DoS) attack can be easily engineered anywhere. Learn more about what it is and how it works. A “denial of service” or DoS attack ties up a website’s resources so that users who need to access the site cannot do so. The attacks have hit many significant companies. And the bad news? Because… Read more: What are Denial of Service (DoS) attacks? DoS attacks explained
  • What is IPv6, and why is adoption taking so long?
    IPv6 has been being developed since 1998 to address the dwindling supply of IPv4 addresses available, despite its efficiency and security redesigns, enterprise acceptance and implementation is slow. For the most part, the dire warnings about running out of internet addresses have ceased because, slowly but surely, migration from the world of Internet Protocol Version… Read more: What is IPv6, and why is adoption taking so long?
  • ISP (internet service provider)
    What is an ISP? An ISP (internet service provider) is a company that provides individuals and organizations with access to the Internet and related services. An ISP has the equipment and telecommunication line access required to have a point of presence on the Internet for the geographic area served. ISPs allow customers to access the… Read more: ISP (internet service provider)
  • What is Data in Motion?
    What is data in motion? Data in motion, also referred to as data in transit or in flight, is a process in which digital information is transported between locations within or between computer systems. The term can also describe data within a computer’s RAM ready to be read, accessed, updated, or processed. Data in motion is one… Read more: What is Data in Motion?
  • What is a Network Node?
    What is a computer network, and where do network nodes fit? A computer network is a computer and computing device system connected via communication links. These links allow the computers and other devices to send information over the network. Network protocols define how information is sent and received. Networks can be defined by their geographic… Read more: What is a Network Node?
  • POP3 (Post Office Protocol 3)
    What is POP3 (Post Office Protocol 3)? Post Office Protocol 3, or POP3, is the most commonly used protocol for receiving email over the Internet. This standard protocol, which most email servers and their clients support, receives emails from a remote server and sends them to a local client. POP3 is a one-way client-server protocol… Read more: POP3 (Post Office Protocol 3)
  • Transmission Control Protocol (TCP)
    Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) is a standard that defines how to establish and maintain a network conversation by which applications can exchange data. TCP works with the Internet Protocol (IP), which defines how computers send packets of data to each other. Together, TCP and IP are the basic rules that define the Internet. The Internet Engineering Task… Read more: Transmission Control Protocol (TCP)
  • What is a firewall? How network firewalls work
    A firewall sits between a network and the Internet, controlling data flow in and out of the network to stop potential security threats. What is a firewall? A firewall is a security system that monitors and controls network traffic based on security rules. Firewalls usually sit between a trusted network and an untrusted network; frequently,… Read more: What is a firewall? How network firewalls work